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ENG 271: Li

IEEE Citations

Index of Materials Covered:

IEEE In-Text Citations

IEEE Reference Sections

IEEE Citation Links


Accurately citing resources is essential for the success of any engineer. Although there are many different citations styles, the standard citation method for engineers is the Institute of Electrical and Electronic's (IEEE) citation style. You can find the IEEE style manual here.


IEEE referencing - The Basics from Victoria University Library on Vimeo.

View full written transcript of this video via Victoria Universitysity



In-Text IEEE Citing  

IEEE Citation Info

Generally speaking, IEEE in-text citations do not include the name of the author, date, or pages utilized. Instead, IEEE in-text citations uses numbers within brackets which will then correspond to a full citation listing within your reference section. For example, [1] will correspond to the first citation in your reference section. 

Examples of IEEE in-text citations:

"...end of the line for my research [13]."

"This theory was first postulated in 2015 [1]."

"Hause [2] has argued that..."

"Multiple studies [3], [4], [5], [12] have suggested that...."

"Research has shown [3], [6], [8] - [12]"


Tips for creating IEEE in-text citations:

  • Place bracketed citations within the line of text and before any punctuation.
  • In-text citations should be numbered in the order that you cite them in the paper.
  • Once you have referenced a source and assigned it a bracketed number, you should continue to use that number as you cite that source throughout rest of your paper (E.g. you don't have to assign a new bracketed number each time that you mention the same source in your paper).
  • When citing multiple sources at the same time, list each number separately, in numerical order, with each number within its own bracket, and each bracket separated by a comma.
    • For example: "Studies have shown [1], [7], [8]" 
  • If you are citing multiple sources, and three or more of those sources are already in order by number, you can use a dash between those brackets.
    • For example: "Studies have shown [1], [3] - [5]"


Creating an IEEE Reference Section  

A reference section will appear at the end of your research paper and will provide the full citations for all the in-text references (e.g. bracketed numbers) that you have used within you paper. When creating a reference section, list the references numerically in the order they've been cited within your research paper. Make sure to include the bracketed number at the beginning of each reference.

Here are some tips when creating IEEE reference section:

  • Title your list as References either centered or aligned left at the top of the page.

  • Single-space entries and double-space between different references.

  • Place reference number [1] on the left margin (enclosed in brackets).

  • The author's name is listed as first initial than last name. Example: J. Smith

  • The title of the article will be listed in quotation marks.

  • The title of a journal or book will be listed in italics.

The below examples are from the IEEE Citation Reference Guide and Murdoch University's IEEE Style LibGuide.


Examples of citations for different materials: 

Taken from the University of Pittsburgh Library Course & Subject Guide, the Murdoch University IEEE Style Guide, and the IEEE Editorial Style Manual



Material Type

Works Cited

Book in print

[1] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

Chapter in book

[2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.


[3] L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman, Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003. [E-book] Available: Safari e-book.

Journal article

[4] J. U. Duncombe, "Infrared navigation - Part I: An assessment of feasability," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 34-39, Jan. 1959.

eJournal (from database)

[5] H. K. Edwards and V. Sridhar, "Analysis of software requirements engineering exercises in a global virtual team setup," Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 21+, April-June 2005. [Online]. Available: Academic OneFile, [Accessed May 31, 2005].

eJournal (from internet)

[6] A. Altun, "Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners' experience," Current Issues in Education, vol. 6, no. 12, July 2003. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Dec. 2, 2004].

Conference paper

[7] L. Liu and H. Miao, "A specification based approach to testing polymorphic attributes," in Formal Methods and Software Engineering: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2004, Seattle, WA, USA, November 8-12, 2004, J. Davies, W. Schulte, M. Barnett, Eds. Berlin: Springer, 2004. pp. 306-19.

Conference proceedings

[8] T. J. van Weert and R. K. Munro, Eds., Informatics and the Digital Society: Social, ethical and cognitive issues: IFIP TC3/WG3.1&3.2 Open Conference on Social, Ethical and Cognitive Issues of Informatics and ICT, July 22-26, 2002, Dortmund, Germany. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2003.

Newspaper article (from database)

[9] J. Riley, "Call for new look at skilled migrants," The Australian, p. 35, May 31, 2005. [Online]. Available: Factiva, [Accessed May 31, 2005].

Technical report

[10] J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, “Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna,” Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas,
Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL-006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987.


[11] J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.


[12] IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.


[1] J. O. Williams, “Narrow-band analyzer,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993.

Website There are various ways to cite a website depending upon the structure and authorship of the materials. Here's a nice quick reference guide from Monash University.


IEEE Style and Documentation Quick-start Guide 

IEEE Editorial Style Manual 

University of Pittsburgh Libraries IEEE Style Guide


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