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Libraries Research Guides

Citing Sources

APA Style

APA Video

Anatomy of an APA article citation

From Dalhouisie University.  4-minute video illustrating the parts of APA citation formats.

References & Bibliography

1. Book
Author Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title and Subtitle. City of Publication, State: Publisher.

Example:  Levick, S. E. (2003).  Clone being:  Exploring the psychological and social dimensions.  Lanham, MD:  Rowman & Littlefield.

2. Anthology/Book Chapter
Author Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of Selection. First Initial. Last Name of Editors (Eds.), Title of the Book.  City of Publication, State: Publisher.

Example:  Burke, W. W., & Nourmair, D. A. (2001).  The role of personality assessment in organization development.  In J. Waclawski & A. H. Church (Eds.), Organization development:  A data-driven approach to organizational change (pp. 55-77).  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass.

3. Article from an Online Database
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Date). Article Title. Journal Title., Date Accessed, Page Numbers. Retrieved from Database Name. Digital Object Identifier.

Example:  Morley, N. J., Ball, L. J., & Ormerod, T. C. (2006).  How the detection of insurance fraud succeeds and fails.  Psychology, Crime, & Law, 12(2), 163-180.  doi:  10.1080/10683160512331316325

4. Work from a Website
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Date).  Work Title.  Publication Title. Retrieved from website.

Example:  Hacker, J. S. (2006).  The privatization of risk and the growing economic insecurity of Americans.  Items and Issues, 5(4), 16-23.  Retrieved from

Source:  Everyday Writer, 4th ed. (Lunsford)

In Text Citations

1. Citation Using a Signal Phrase
Gitlin (2001) pointed out that “political critics, convinced that the media are rigged against them, are often blind to other substantial reasons why their causes are unpersuasive” (p. 141).

2. Parenthetical Citation
If the author is not named in a signal phrase, end the sentence with the author’s last name, the year, and page numbers in parentheses. (Gitlin, 2001, p. 141)

3. Multiple Authors
A recent study has suggested that many women do not negotiate their salaries and pay raises as vigorously as their male counterparts do (Babcock & Laschever, 2003).

4. Unknown Author
The employment profiles for this time period substantiated this trend (Federal Employment, 2001).

Source:  Everyday Writer, 4th ed. (Lunsford)

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